As an effective way to mitigate urban traffic congestion, transit system serves as a key mode in many metropolitan areas around the world. Due to the high capacity of transit vehicles, the promotion of transit systems can help minimize the number of passenger cars in urban networks and consequently reduce the overall network congestion. From the green transportation perspective, transit systems can significantly contribute to reduction in the energy resources and vehicles’ emissions.
However, a transit system can be effective only if it is well designed and effectively operated. More specifically, the most critical design issue at the operation level is to minimize the delays and frequent stops experienced by bus riders. Both the delay variance and stop frequency may consequently affect the schedule reliability of a transit system and commuters’ willingness to select such a transportation mode.